Langston Hughes’ classic poem, “Let America Be America Again,”, acknowledges the American dream as a nation where “Equality is in the air we breathe.” Hughes avers that this dream has never included him and concludes with this avowal:

America never was America to me,
And yet I swear this oath—
America will be! . . . 

We, the people, must redeem
all the stretch of these great green states—
And make America again!

Hughes’ invocation of “We the People” is the hallmark phrase of a democracy. There is no democracy unless people and American mean all citizens, unless all have access to vote, free of the legal restrictions as well as voter suppression that has long characterized American history. Hughes’ challenge to redeem America includes making it true that any qualified citizen can become president.  


The Divided States of America
Cards and Canards
Who Is "America"? Whose "America" Is It?
Racism & Xenophobia
Immigrant Detentions and Contentions
Man Up
MeToo Movements
Misogyny and Misogynoir
Threats of Harm & Electoral Violence
Bullying, Shaming, and Lying
Pandemic Politics
Unmasked Meanings
God on Our Side
Gun Battles
Black Lives Matter
Pop Archetypes
Fake News, Troll Tidings
Disinformation and Conspiracy "Theories"
Talking Back to the Cap
Making and Remaking America
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Dorothy F. Schmidt College of Arts and Letters
Florida Atlantic University

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